||This book focuses on ascertaining what distinguishes the Cold War that the U.S. sustained with the USSR from the one now emerging with China. By comparing their characteristics, it elaborates on how well prepared the US is to undertake this fresh challenge. In doing so, the book analyses six fundamental differences between both cold wars; ideology, alliances, strategic consistency, military, economics, and containment. While the configuration of factors benefited the US during its first Cold War, they now point in the opposite direction. While the first Cold War was instrumental in projecting the US to the pinnacle, the second can only accelerate its dwindling. Alfredo Toro Hardy is a Venezuelan retired diplomat, scholar and author. He has a PhD on International Relations and several master and postgraduate degrees, including a Master in Law degree from the University of Pennsylvania. Before resigning from the Venezuelan Foreign Service in protest for the authoritarian outreach of the government, he served as Ambassador to the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Brazil, Singapore, Chile and Ireland. He directed the Diplomatic Academy of his country as well as other Venezuelan academic institutions, while being Visiting Professor at the universities of Princeton, Barcelona and Brasilia. He has been a Fulbright Scholar, Academic Advisor of the University of Westminster, and a two-time Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center Resident Scholar. Author of twenty books and co-author of fifteen more, he has also published thirty peer reviewed papers, all of them on international affairs.