||"'Crimea in War and Transformation' describes the civilian experience of the Crimean War. War ruined lives, destroyed landscapes, devastated agriculture, and decimated industry. Less than a month into the year-long Allied siege of Sevastopol, a subsistence crisis exposed the folly of Russia's scorched earth tactics and weaknesses in military supply chains. Hungry soldiers and desperate officials scapegoated Crimea's native Muslim population, accusing them of hoarding food and collaborating with the enemy. Before humanitarian impulses prevailed, officials initiated a deadly population transfer. Unable to eke out survival in a hostile and war torn land, nearly 200,000 Crimean Tatars left their homeland. Drawing from a wide body of material, including hitherto untapped archives in Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea, this is the first book to examine the toll of war on Crimean civilians and landscapes from mobilization through recovery. It analyzes origins of Russia's 20th century military-civilian policy, and provides under-explored context for Russia's post-war social reforms. Kozelsky analyzes issues all-too-relevant across the globe today: ethnic cleansing, mass migration, refugees of war, environmental ruin and revivals of religious nationalism"-- Provided by publisher.